AWEA to adopt International Standards

The American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) is an accredited American standard developer (ASD) for wind energy American National Standards (ANS). The AWEA Wind Energy Standard Development Committee (WSC) is intending to adopt several international standards from the International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Committee 88 (IEC TC 88) – Wind Turbines. The IEC TC 88 develops international standards for wind turbines that convert wind energy into electrical energy. These standards address design requirements, engineering integrity, measurement techniques and test procedures. AWEA also administers the United States Technical Advisory Group (US TAG) for TC 88, which is the US representation on the TC 88.

As such, AWEA is able to easily adopt any of the IEC TC 88 standards as American National Standards. Standards that the AWEA WSC is intending to adopt include:

IEC 61400-11 - Acoustic noise measurement techniques

Measurement procedures that enable noise emissions of a wind turbine to be characterized. This involves using measurement methods appropriate to noise emission assessment at locations close to the machine, in order to avoid errors due to sound propagation, but far away enough to allow for the finite source size. The procedures described are different in some respects from those that would be adopted for noise assessment in community noise studies. They are intended to facilitate characterization of wind turbine noise with respect to a range of wind speeds and directions. Standardization of measurement procedures will also facilitate comparisons between different wind turbines.

IEC 61400-12-1 - Power performance measurements

Specifies a procedure for measuring the power performance characteristics of a single wind turbine and applies to the testing of wind turbines of all types and sizes connected to the electrical power network. Also describes a procedure to be used to determine the power performance characteristics of small wind turbines (as defined in IEC 61400-2) when connected to either the electric power network or a battery bank.

IEC 61400-12-2 - Power performance  based on nacelle anemometry

Specifies a procedure for verifying the power performance characteristics of a single electricity-producing, horizontal axis wind turbine, which is not considered to be a small wind turbine per IEC 61400-2. This standard is intended to be used when the specific operational or contractual specifications may not comply with the requirements set forth in IEC 61400-12-1:2005. The procedure can be used for power performance evaluation of specific turbines at specific locations, but equally the methodology can be used to make generic comparisons between different turbine models or different turbine settings.

IEC/TS 61400-13 - Measurement of mechanical loads

Acts as a guide for carrying out measurements used for verification of codes and for direct determination of the structural loading. Focuses mainly on large electricity generating horizontal axis wind turbines.

IEC/TS 61400-14 - Sound power level and tonality

Gives guidelines for declaring the apparent sound power level and tonality of a batch of wind turbines. Is to be used in conjunction with IEC 61400-11 which gives measurement procedures for apparent sound power level and tonality.

IEC 61400-23 - Full scale structural testing of rotor blades

Defines the requirements for full-scale structural testing of wind turbine blades and for the interpretation and evaluation of achieved test results. The standard focuses on aspects of testing related to an evaluation of the integrity of the blade, for use by manufacturers and third party investigators. The following tests are considered in this standard:

  • static load tests;
  • fatigue tests;
  • static load tests after fatigue tests;
  • tests determining other blade properties. The purpose of the tests is to confirm to an acceptable level of probability that the whole population of a blade type fulfils the design assumptions.

IEC 61400-24 - Lighting Protection

Applies to lightning protection of wind turbine generators and wind power systems. Defines the lightning environment for wind turbines and application of the environment for risk assessment for the wind turbine. Defines requirements for protection of blades, other structural components and electrical and control systems against both direct and indirect effects of lightning. Recommends test methods to validate compliance. Provides guidance on the use of applicable lightning protection, industrial electrical and EMC standards including earthing. Provides guidance regarding personal safety. Makes normative references to generic standards for lightning protection, low-voltage systems and high-voltage systems for machinery and installations and EMC.

IEC 61400-25-1 - Communications - Overall description and models

Gives an overall description of the principles and models used in the IEC 61400-25 series of standards. The IEC 61400-25 series deals with communications between wind power plant components such as wind turbines and actors such as SCADA Systems. It is designed for a communication environment supported by a client-server model.

IEC 61400-25-2 - Communications - information models

Specifies the information model of devices and functions related to wind power plant applications. Specifies in particular the compatible logical node names, and data names for communication between wind power plant components, including the relationship between logical devices, logical nodes and data.

IEC 61400-25-3 - Communications - Information Exchange

Specifies an abstract communication service interface describing the information exchange between a client and a server for: data access and retrieval, device control, event reporting and logging, publisher/subscriber, self-description of devices (device data dictionary), data typing and discovery of data types.

IEC 61400-25-4 - Communications - Mapping to communication profile

Specifies the specific mappings to protocol stacks encoding the messages required for the information exchange between a client and a remote server for data access and retrieval, device control, event reporting and logging, publisher/subscriber, self-description of devices (device data dictionary), data typing and discovery of data types. Covers several mappings, one of which shall be selected in order to be compliant with this part of IEC 61400-25.

IEC 61400-25-5 - Communications - Conformance testing

Specifies standard techniques for testing of conformance of implementations, as well as specific measurement techniques to be applied when declaring performance parameters. The use of these techniques will enhance the ability of users to purchase systems that integrate easily, operate correctly, and support the applications as intended.

IEC 61400-25-6 - Communications -  condition monitoring

Specifies the information models related to condition monitoring for wind power plants and the information exchange of data values related to these models. The purpose is to model condition monitoring information by using the information modelling approach as described in IEC 61400-25-1 and by extending the existing information model as specified in IEC 61400-25-2, the information exchange models specified in IEC 61400-25-3 and the mapping to communication profiles as specified in IEC 61400-25-4.

IEC/TS 61400-26-1 - Time-based  availability

Defines generic information categories to which fractions of time can be assigned for a wind turbine generating system (WTGS) considering internal and external conditions based on fraction of time and specifying the following:

  • generic information categories of a WTGS considering availability and other performance indicators;
  • information category priority in order to discriminate between concurrent categories
  • entry and exit point for each information category in order to allocate designation of time;
  • informative annexes providing various examples.

 Please contact Michele Mihelic to receive more information, or to submit comments in regards to the adoption of these standards.